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Studying at Cambridge

DAPA Measurement Toolkit

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Subjective Methods Objective Methods
Dietary outcome Estimated food diaries Weighed food diaries 24-hour dietary recall Food frequency questionnaire Dietary checklist Dietary history Direct observation Duplicate diets Nutritional biomarkers
Energy and nutrient intake of total diet
X
X
X
X
X
Maybe
X
X
X
Intake of specific nutrients or food
X
X
X
X
X
Maybe
X
X
X
Infrequently consumed foods
Maybe
Maybe
Maybe
X
X
X
X
X
X
Dietary patterns
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Habitual diet
X
X
X
X
X
Within person comparison
X
X
X
X
X
Maybe
X
X
X
Between person comparison
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Meal composition
X
X
X
X
X
Maybe
X
X
Frequency of eating/meal occasions
X
X
X
X
X
Maybe
X
X
Eating environment
X
X
X
X
Maybe
X
Adult report of diet at younger age
X
X
Characteristic
Single recall Multiple recall
Number of participants
Up to ~5000
Up to ~1000
Up to ~5000
Up to ~1000
Any
Any
Up to a few thousands
Small
Typically small
Any
Cost of development
Low
Low
Low
Low
Medium
Low
Low
Low
High
High
Cost of use
Medium
Medium
Medium
High
Low
Low
Medium
High
High
High
Participant burden
High
Very high
Low
Very high
Low
Low
Medium
Low
High
Varies with sample type
Researcher burden of data collection
Medium
Medium
High
High
Low
Low
Medium
High
Low
High
Researcher burden of coding and data analysis
High
High
Medium
High
Medium
Low
Medium
High
High
High
Risk of reactivity bias
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Risk of recall bias
Minimised if diary completed at time of consumption
Minimised if diary completed at time of consumption
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Minimised if duplicate saved at time of consumption
No
Risk of social desirability bias
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Minimised
Yes
No
Risk of observer bias
No
Minimised
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Minimised
Minimised with blinding
Participant literacy required
Yes
Yes
Maybe
Maybe
Maybe
Depends on whether interviewing or not
Yes
No
If diary also completed
No
Suitable for use in free living
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Requires individual portion size estimation
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Maybe
Depends on design
No
Yes
No
No