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Studying at Cambridge

DAPA Measurement Toolkit

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Subjective Methods Objective Methods
Dimension Questionnaires Diaries and logs Simple Pedometer Time Series Pedometer Accelerometer Heart Rate Monitor Combined heart rate and movement sensor Direct Observation Doubly labelled Water Multi Sensor Monitors GNSS Recievers
Duration
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Intensity
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Maybe
Frequency
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Volume
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Maybe
Total physical activity energy expenditure
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Type
X
X
Maybe
X
Maybe
Timing of bouts of activity (i.e. pattern of activity)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Domain
X
X
X
Contextual information (e.g. location)
X
X
X
X
Posture
X
X
X
Maybe
X
Sedentary behaviour
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Consideration
Number of participants
Small to large
Small to large
Small to large
Small to large
Small to large
Small to large
Small
Small
Small to large
Small to large
Relative monetary cost
Low
Low
Low
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
High
High
Moderate
Moderate
Participant burden
Low
High
Low
Low
High with individual calibration
High with individual calibration
Low
Low
Low
Moderate
Researcher burden of data collection
Low
Low
Low
Low
High with individual calibration
High with individual calibration
High
Low
Low
Low
Researcher burden of data analysis
High if completed manually
High if completed manually
Low
High
High
High
High
Moderate
Low
High
Risk of reactivity biasĀ 
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Depends on blinding
Yes
Yes
Risk of recall bias
Yes
Minimised if completed at time of consumption
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Risk of social desirability bias
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Risk of observer biasĀ 
When interview is used
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Participant literacy required
When self-administered
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Cognitively demanding
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No